Jaycee's Networking

September 29, 2009

Basic Config of JUNOS

Filed under: IS-IS, Junos, OSPF, Static Route — Tags: , — Jaycee @ 7:18 pm

17. The loop argument to the autonomous-system statement allows you to configure tolerance for occurrences of the local ASN in received route updates. It indicates a BGP routing loop and results in the related route being discarded. The default setting of 1 will reject any route with 1 instance of the local AS number. That is, the route with a single instance of the local ASN should be discarded. To support reception of routes with a single instance of the local ASN, specify a loop value of 2.

jc@Junos# set routing-options autonomous-system loops 3

Tolerates as many as 2 instances of the local AS number in received route updates.

16. Martian routes:

jc@Junos> show route martians table inet.0

inet.0:
0.0.0.0/0 exact -- allowed
0.0.0.0/8 orlonger -- disallowed
127.0.0.0/8 orlonger -- disallowed
128.0.0.0/16 orlonger -- disallowed
191.255.0.0/16 orlonger -- disallowed
192.0.0.0/24 orlonger -- disallowed
223.255.255.0/24 orlonger -- disallowed
240.0.0.0/4 orlonger -- disallowed

15. Security:

a. SSH:

jc@Junos> set system services ss

b. Direct broadcast msgs:

Junos doesn’t forwared these msgs to prevent DoS, which are datagrams with a destination address of an IP subnetwork broadcast address.

c. Martian addresses:

Martian addresses are host or network addresses about which all routing information is ignored.

(1) In IPv4: 0.0.0.0/8, 127.0.0.0/8, 128.0.0.0/16, 191.255.0.0/16, 192.0.0.0/24, 223.255.255.0/24, 240.0.0.0/4

(2) In IPv6: the loopback address, the reserved and unassigned prefixes from RFC 2373, and the link-local unicast prefix are the default martian addresses

d. Who’s logged in:

jc@Junos> show system users
jc@Junos> request system logout mike
jc@Junos> request message user mike message "End router session now!"
jc@Junos> request message all message "End router session now!"

e. Who’s configuring:

jc@Junos# status
Users currently editing the configuration:
  fred terminal p0 (pid 13329) on since 2008-03-23 15:15:12 UTC

f. Ensure no one else can modify the router while u’re editing:

jc@Junos# configure exclusive

14. IS-IS:

a. IS-IS runs directly on the data link layer (Layer 2). As a result, each interface that runs IS-IS doesn’t need an IP address to exchange IS-IS information.

b. It was developed as part of the OSI network protocols and not part of TCP/IP, thus IS-IS doesn’t use IP addresses.

c. IS-IS addresses are called NETs (Network Entity Titles). NETs can be 8~20 bytes long, but are generally 10 bytes long:

isis

d. All the routers within an area exchange their network topology information in IS-IS LSPs, and run the SPF calculation to keep their link-state database identical.

e. Routers within an area can send summaries of their routes to other areas in the IS-IS network.

f. Two types of routers:

(1) Level 1 systems: When they receive traffic destined for somewhere outside the area, they send the packet toward a Level 2 system.

(2) Level 2 systems:

(2.1) Route traffic b/w 2 IS-IS areas.
(2.2) They route traffic to other ASs.

g. Configure IS-IS:

jc@Junos> set interfaces ge-1/0/0 unit 0 family iso
jc@Junos> set protocols isis interface ge-1/0/0.0

e. Monitor IS-IS:

jc@Junos> show isis database
jc@Junos> show isis adjacency => displays the neighbors 
jc@Junos> show ospf interface 
jc@Junos> show ospf route
jc@Junos> show route protocol isi

13. OSPF:

a. Link-state protocols run a SPF algorithm to create a database of the network’s topology to determine the best path to a destination.

b. Each router goes through the following process to discover the network topology and determine the best path to each destination:

1) OSPF creates LSAs which describe the network topology that the router has in its link-state database.

2) The router floods the LSAs to all routers in the domain.

3) When the router receives LSAs from other routers, it adds the information to its link-state database.

4) The router runs the Dijkstra SPF calculation to determine the shortest path to each destination in the domain. The result of the calculation is the destination address and the next hop.  OSPF places this information in its OSPF routing database. Each router performs the SPF calculation independently, all routers end up with identical link-state databases thought the routers may have different next hops for the destination.

5) When changes occur in the domain, this information is transmitted in LSAs, and all the OSPF routers rerun the SPF calculation and update their link-state database.

c. As an OSPF network gets larger, one of the challenges is keeping all the link-state statements on all routers in sync. => divide it into smaller areas

1) Each area has the same properties: All the routers within the area exchange their network topology information in LSAs, and this smaller group of routers run the SPF calculation to keep their link-state databases identical.

2) ABRs — run 2 SPF calculations, maintain 2 link-state databases, pass route information between the 2 areas but summarize it before sending it into the neighboring area.

Summarization improves the overall stability of the OSPF network.

3) ASBRs — are responsible to advertise externally learned routes into the OSPF administrative domains.

4) All routers in the OSPF backbone must be physically connected to each other. If any routers aren’t physically contiguous, they must be connected by an OSPF virtual link so that they appear to be contiguous.

5) Area ID 0 is normally written as the 32-bit value 0.0.0.0.

6) Stub areas — receive only summarized routing information about other areas within the OSPF domain, and don’t receive any information about external OSPF routes. => Stub areas can’t connect to external networks.

7) NSSAs — can connect to external networks.

d. Configure OSPF:

[edit protocols]
jc@Junos# set ospf area 0.0.0.0 interface ge-1/3/0.0 authentication md5 123456

e. Monitor OSPF:

jc@Junos> show ospf database
jc@Junos> show ospf database summary
jc@Junos> show ospf database brief
jc@Junos> show ospf database router
jc@Junos> show ospf interface
jc@Junos> show ospf neighbor
jc@Junos> show ospf route
jc@Junos> show ospf overview
jc@Junos> show route protocol ospf

12. RIP:

[edit protocols]
jc@Junos# set rip group fred-group neighbor ge-0/0/1.0

a. All RIP neighbors needs to be part of a group with group keyword. (i.e. fred-group)

jc@Junos> show rip neighbor
                     Source      Destination   Send   Receive   In
Neighbor     State   Address     Address       Mode   Mode     Met
--------     -----   -------     -----------   ----   -------  ---
ge-0/0/1.0      Up 10.0.29.2    224.0.0.9     mcast   both      1

b. The last column reports the inbound metric, which is how many hops will be added to received routes.

11. Default Route Preferences:

How Route is Learned Default Route Preference
Directly connected router or network 0
Configured static routes 5
MPLS 7
LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) 9
OSPF internal routes 10
IS-IS Level 1 internal routes 15
IS-IS Level 2 internal routes 18
SNMP 50
RIP 100
PIM 105
DVMRP 110
Aggregate 130
OSPF external routes 150
IS-IS Level 1 external routes 160
IS-IS Level 2 external routes 165
BGP 170
MSDP 175

a. LDP — MPLS-specific protocol that LSRs can use to exchange information about the labels for each FEC so that they can assign the correct labels to each of their forwarding paths.

1) LSR (Label Switching Router) — a networking device that can run the MPLS protocols

2) LSP (Lable Switched Path) — the end-to-end, unidirectional path established through the MPLS network

3) FEC (Forward Equivalency Class) — the set of IP packets assigned to a particular path and identified by its label

10. Routing Table:

Routing Table Description
inet.0 Default table for IPv4 unicast routes, including configured static routes, RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP.
inet.1 Multicast forwarding cache, used by DVMRP and PIM
inet.3 Stores paths and label information for traffic engineering (MPLS)
inet.6.0 Default table for IPv6 unicast routes
iso.0 ISO routes for IS-IS
mpls.0 Next hops for MPLS label-switched paths (LSPs)
jc@Junos> show route
inet.0: 6 destinations, 6 routes (6 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
+ = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both

2.0.0.0/24         *[Direct/0] 9w3d 17:41:54
                    > via ge-0/0/2.0
2.0.0.120/32       *[Local/0] 9w3d 17:41:57
                      Local via ge-0/0/2.0
10.5.0.0/16        *[Static/5] 9w3d 17:41:56
                    > to 10.93.15.254 via fxp0.0
10.10.0.0/16       *[Static/5] 9w3d 17:41:56
                    > to 10.93.15.254 via fxp0.0
10.93.4.52/32      *[Direct/0] 9w3d 17:43:44
                    > via lo0.0
                    [Static/5] 9w3d 17:43:44

__juniper_private1__.inet.0: 14 destinations, 14 routes (8 active, 0 holddown, 6 hidden)
+ = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both

10.0.0.0/8         *[Direct/0] 9w3d 17:43:44
                    > via fxp1.0
10.0.0.1/32        *[Local/0] 9w3d 17:41:57
                      Local

__juniper_private1__.inet6.0: 2 destinations, 2 routes (2 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
+ = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both

fe80::/64         *[Direct/0] 9w3d 17:43:44
                    > via fxp1.0
fe80::200:ff:fe00:4/128
                  *[Local/0] 9w3d 17:41:57
                     Local via fxp1.0

a. hold-down state — it occurs before a route is removed from the routing table

b. hidden state — it a result of a plicy that you’ve configured on the router a problem with the route

9. Static Route:

[edit routing-options]
jc@Junos# set static route 192.168.1.1 next-hop 10.1.0.1

8. Interface:

[edit]
jc@Junos# set interfaces ge-1/2/0 unit 0 family inet address 192.168.10.40/24
jc@Junos# set ge1-1/3/0 unit 0 family inet6 address::2/64
jc@Junos# set ge-1/3/0 unit 0 family iso

a. four levels:

physical interfaceunit family protocol family

1) unit is a logical interface

2) at least one family on each logical itnerface

3) at least one protocol family on each logical interface to allow it to receive and transmit protocol traffic

b. common protocols on interfaces:

1) inet – for IPv4

2) inet6 – for IPv6

3) iso – for the interfaces that need to support CLNS, which is the ISO network layer service protocol that is used by IS-IS.

4) mpls

7. Traceoptions:

[edit]
jc@Junos# set protocols ospf traceoptions file ospf.log
jc@Junos# set protocols ospf traceoptions flag all
jc@Junos# set security traceoptions flag policy-manager
jc@Junos# set security traceoptions flag general
jc@Junos# set routing-options traceoptions file trace-events world-readable
jc@Junos# set routing-options traceoptions flag all

6. Syslog:

[edit system]
jc@Junos# set syslog file ?
Possible completions:
 <file-name>          Name of file in which to log data
 cli-commands         Name of file in which to log data
 emergency            Name of file in which to log data
 firewall             Name of file in which to log data
 messages             Name of file in which to log data

[edit system]
jc@Junos# set syslog file messages any notice
jc@Junos# set syslog file messages authorization info
jc@Junos# set syslog file cli-commands interactive-commands any
jc@Junos# set syslog file emergency any emergency
jc@Junos# set syslog file firewall firewall notice
Types of Logging Events Logging Se verity Levels
any notice
Any router event General router operational events of more interest than “info”
authorization info
Authentication and authorization attempts General router operation
interactive-commands any
Commands typed at the command-line interface or by a JUNOScript client application All events
any emergency
Errors that cause the router to stop operating
firewall notice
Packet filtering performed by firewall filters

5.RADIUS:

[edit system]
jc@Junos# set radius-server 192.168.10.1 port 1812 secret 123456
jc@Junos# set radius-server 192.168.10.1 timeout 1
jc@Junos# set radius-server 192.168.10.1 retry 1
jc@Junos# set radius-server 192.168.10.1 source-address 192.168.200.2

[edit system]
jc@Junos# show
radius-server {
    192.168.10.1 {
        port 1812;
        secret "$9$SZQUk.fTz6Ct5TcyevLX"; ## SECRET-DATA
        timeout 1;
        retry 1;
        source-address 192.168.200.2;
    }
}

[edit system]
jc@Junos# set authentication-order [ radius password ]

4.  Junos encrypts all passwords and marks them as ## SECRET-DATA. It allows you to hide the fact that a password is even present in the configuration.

[edit system login]
jc@Junos# show | except SECRET-DATA
class operation {
idle-timeout 0;
permissions all;
}
user operation {
full-name "Operation Team";
uid 2000;
class operation;
authentication {
}
}
user jc {
uid 2005;
class operation;
}

3. User Acct:

jc@Junos# set user jc class super-user
jc@Junos# set user jc authentication plain-text-password

2. Banner:

jc@Junos# set system login message "--------------------\nWARNING: Unauthorized access prohibited. --------------------\n"
jc@Junos# set system announcement "Network maintenance announcement."

1. Keyboard shortcuts:

Ctrl+a — move to beginning of command line

Ctrl+e — move to end of command line

Ctrl+k — delete all text from cursor to end of command line

Esc+b — move back one word

Esc+f — move forward one word

Esc+d — delete the word after the cursor

Esc+Backspace — delete the word before the cursor

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